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Articles & book chapters

Forthcoming

Evnitskaya, N. (forthcoming). Constructing Cognitive Discourse Functions in secondary CLIL classrooms in Spain. In Tsuchiya, K. & Pérez-Murillo, M.D. (eds.), Content and Language Integrated Content in Spanish and Japanese Contexts: Policy, Practice and Pedagogy. Palgrave Macmillan.

Evnitskaya, N. & Dalton-Puffer, C. (forthcoming) Cognitive Discourse Functions in CLIL classrooms: Eliciting and analyzing students’ classifications in science and history. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Special Issue on Social-semiotic and systemic functional approaches to content and language integrated learning in bilingual/multilingual education, (Q1 SJR)

Hidalgo McCabe, E. & Fernández-González, N. (forthcoming). Framing ‘choice’ in language education: the case of freedom in constructing inequality. In Martín Rojo, L. & Del Precio, A. (Eds). Language and Neoliberal Governmentality. Routledge

McCabe, A. & Whittaker, R. (forthcoming) Expressing evaluation across disciplines in primary and secondary CLIL writing. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Special Issue on Social-semiotic and systemic functional approaches to content and language integrated learning in bilingual/multilingual education, (Q1 SJR)

Nashaat, N. & Llinares, A. (forthcoming) Defining historical fields across languages in CLIL settings. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Special Issue on Social-semiotic and systemic functional approaches to content and language integrated learning in bilingual/multilingual education, (Q1 SJR)

Whittaker, R. & McCabe A. (forthcoming) Writing on history in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) context: Development of grammatical metaphor as evidence of language learning. In Machón, R.M. (Ed.) Writing and Language Learning: Advancing Research Agendas. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

 


2018

Llinares A. (2018) Classroom Interaction in CLIL Primary School Classrooms: Research Insights to Inform Successful Pedagogy. English as a Global Language Education (EaGLE) Journal, 3(1), 39-61.

Morton, T. (2018). Reconceptualizing and describing teachers’ knowledge of language for content and language integrated learning (CLIL). International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21 (3): 275-86. (Q1 SJR)

Morton, T., & Llinares, A. (2018). Students’ use of evaluative language in L2 English to talk and write about history in a bilingual education programme. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21 (4): 496-508. (Q1)

Nashaat Sobhy, N. (2018). Operationalizing “Defining” from a Cognitive Discourse Perspective for Learners’ Use. To appear In S. M. Anwaruddin (Ed.), Knowledge mobilization in TESOL: Teachers’ experiences of connecting research and practice. Leiden: Brill.

Somers, T. & Llinares, A. (2018). Students’ motivation for Content and Language Integrated Learning and the role of programme intensity. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. DOI: 10.1080/13670050.2018.1517722 (Q1 SJR)

 


2017

Llinares, A. (2017). Learning how to mean in primary school CLIL classrooms. In García Mayo, M.P. (Ed.). Learning foreign languages in primary school. Research insights. Bristol: Multilingual Matters (69-85).

Llinares, A., & Morton, T. (2017). Speech function analysis to explore CLIL students’ spoken language for knowledge construction. In A. Llinares and T. Morton (Eds). Applied Linguistics Perspectives on CLIL. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 129-148.

McCabe, A. (2017) SFL and language teaching. In Bartlett, T. & O’Grady, G. The Routledge Handbook of Systemic Functional Linguistics. Routledge.

McCabe, A. & R. Whittaker (2017). Genre and appraisal in CLIL history texts: developing the voice of the historian. In A. Llinares & T. Morton (eds.), Applied Linguistics Perspectives on CLIL. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Morton, T. & Llinares, A. (2017) Content and language integrated learning: Type of programme or pedagogical model? In Llinares, A. & Morton, T. Applied Linguistics Perspectives on CLIL, pp. 105-24. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Nashaat Sobhy, N. (2017). Investigating Pragmatics in CLIL through students’ requests. In T. Morton & A. Llinares (eds.), Applied Linguistics Perspectives on CLIL. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Pascual, I. & Basse, R. (2017). The use of meta- questions in primary bilingual CLIL classrooms: Building an Assessment for Learning discourse. In A. Llinares and T. Morton (Eds). Applied Linguistics Perspectives on CLIL. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 129-148.

Somers, T. (2017). Content and Language Integrated Learning and the inclusion of immigrant minority language students: A research review. Special issue of The International Review of Education. DOI 10.1007/s11159-017-9651-4

 


2016

Leung, C., & Morton, T. (2016). Language competence, learning and pedagogy in CLIL: deepening and broadening integration. In T. Nikula, E. Dafouz Milne, P. Moore & U. Smit (Eds.). Conceptualising Integration in CLIL and Multilingual Education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. (pp. 235-248).

Llinares, A. & Nikula, T. (2016). Teacher and student evaluative language in CLIL across contexts: integrating SFL and pragmatic approaches. In Tarja Nikula, Emma Dafouz, Pat Moore & Ute Smit (eds.) Conceptualising integration in CLIL and multilingual education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

McCabe, A. & Hidalgo, E. (2016) Managing learner identity for engaging learning. Selected Papers 2014-2015 TESOL-SPAIN, 230-242.

McCabe, A., & Morton, T. (2016). Longitudinal study of two CLIL classrooms in Spain: Results from written and spoken data. In Papaja, K. and Swiatek, A. (eds.) Modernizing Educational Practice Perspectives in Content and Language Integrated Learning. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. (pp. 149-169).

McCabe, A, T. Morton, A. Llinares & R. Whittaker (2016) . Longitudinal Study of Two CLIL Classrooms in Spain: Results from Written and Spoken Data. In In Katarzyna Papaja, Artur Świątek eds. Modernizing Educational Practice: Perspectives in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 149-169.

Morton, T. (2016). Being a language teacher in the content classroom: teacher identity and content and language integrated learning (CLIL). In S. Preece (Ed). Routledge Handbook of Language and Identity. London: Routledge. (pp. 382-395).

Morton, T. (2016). Conceptualizing and investigating teachers’ knowledge for integrating content and language in content-based instruction. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education 4:2: 44–167.

Morton, T. (2016). Content and Language Integrated Learning. In G. Hall (Ed), Routledge Handbook of ELT. London: Routledge (pp. 252-264).

Morton, T., & Jakonen, T. (2016). Integration of language and content through languaging in CLIL classroom interaction: a conversation analysis perspective. In T. Nikula, E. Dafouz Milne, P. Moore and U. Smit (Eds.). Conceptualising Integration in CLIL and Multilingual Education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. (pp. 171-188).

Morton, T & Llinares, A. (2016).  Students’ use of evaluative language in L2 English to talk and write about history in a bilingual education programme. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2016.1192101.

Morton, T, & McCabe, A. (2016). Journey of Three Digitised Texts: Entextualisation and Recontextualisation in a Corpus Study. In S. Gardner and S. Alsop (Eds.) Systemic Functional Linguistics in the Digital Age. Sheffield: Equinox.

Nikula, T., Dalton-Puffer, C., Llinares, A. & Lorenzo, F. (2016). More than content and language: the complexity of integration in CLIL and multilingual education. In Tarja Nikula, Emma Dafouz, Pat Moore & Ute Smit (eds.) Conceptualising integration in CLIL and multilingual education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Pascual, I. & Basse, R. (forthcoming, 2016). The use of meta- questions in primary bilingual CLIL classrooms: Building an Assessment for Learning discourse. In A. Llinares & T. Morton (eds.), Applied Linguistics Perspectives on CLIL. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Whittaker, R. & C. Acevedo (2016) . Working on literacy in CLIL/bilingual contexts: Reading to Learn and teacher development. Estudios sobre Educación. 31, pp. 31-50.

 


2015

Celesten, M. & Basse, R. (2015). Analysing errors of CLIL and non-CLI primary school students in their written and oral productions: a comparative study. Procedia- Social and Behavioral sciences: 11-17.

Jakonen, T, & Morton, T. (2015). Epistemic search sequences in peer interaction in a content based language classroom. Applied Linguistics 36 (1): 73-94.

Llinares, A. (2015). The interpersonal function of language in CLIL secondary education: analysis of a spoken and written corpus (INTER-CLIL). European Journal of Applied Linguistics 3 (2), 343-347.

Llinares, A. (2015). Integration in CLIL: a proposal to inform research and successful pedagogy. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 28(1), 58-73.

Llinares A. & Dalton-Puffer, C. (2015).The role of different tasks in CLIL students’ use of evaluative language. System, 54, 69-79.

Llinares, A. & Pascual, I. (2015). A genre approach to the effect of academic questions on CLIL students’ language production. Language and Education, 29 (1), 15-30.

Morton, T. (2015). Vocabulary explanations in CLIL classrooms: a conversation analysis perspective. The Language Learning Journal, 43 (3): 256-270.

Nashaat Sobhy-Sobhy, N. (2015). Review of Teaching and Learning Pragmatics: Where Language and Culture Meet by Noriko Ishihara and Andrew Cohen. Journal of Intercultural Pragmatics, Walter de Gryuter, 12(1), 129-133.

Surmont, J., E. Struys, T. Somers (2015). Creating a framework for a large-scale implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning: The first steps. European Journal of Language Policy 7, 1, 29-41.

 


2014

Basse, R. (2014). The effects of Assessment for Learning (AfL) on the motivation of lower achieving language learners. Actas del II Congreso Internacional en Lingüística Aplicada a la Enseñaza de lenguas: el camino hacia el plurilingüismo.

Basse, R. (2014). Assessment for learning and motivation in primary bilingual classrooms in Spain. In Celayeta Gil, N., Jiménez Berrio, F., de Lucas Vicente, A. & Iraceburu Jiménez, M. (coords.), Enseñanza y aprendizaje de lenguas en el contexto educativo español. Analecta Malacitana Anejos/96: 11-25.

Dalton-Puffer, C., Llinares, A., Lorenzo, F. & Nikula, T. (2014). “You can stand under my umbrella” Immersion, CLIL and bilingual education. A response to Cenoz, Genesee & Gorter (2013). Applied Linguistics, 35 (2), 213-218.

Escobar Urmeneta, C. & Evnitskaya, N. (2014). ‘Do you know Actimel?’ The Adaptive Nature of Dialogic Teacher-led Discussions in the CLIL Science classroom: A Case Study. Language Learning Journal 42(2): 165-180.

Llinares, A. & Lyster, R. (2014). The influence of context on patterns of corrective feedback and learner uptake: A comparison of CLIL and immersion classrooms. Language Learning Journal, 42(2), 181-194.

Somers, T., De Mesmaeker, E., Lochtman, K. & Van de Craen, P. (2014). Multilingualism as a resource for learning and teaching. In: Morys, N., C. Kirsch, I. de Saint-Georges & G. Gretsch (eds.), Lernen und Lehren in multilingualen Kontexten: Zum Umgang mit sprachlich-kultureller Diversität im Klassenraum / Teaching and learning in multilingual contexts: Dealing with Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in the Classroom. (“Sprache, Mehrsprachigkeit und sozialer Wandel” Series). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. pp. 85-100.

Surmont, J., Van de Craen, P., Struys, E. & Somers, T. (2014). Evaluating a CLIL students: Where to find the CLIL advantage. In: Breeze, R., C. Llamas Saíz, C. Martínez Pasamar & C. Taberno Sala (eds.), Integration of theory and practice in CLIL. Amsterdam – New York: Rodopi. pp. 55-72.

Whittaker, R. (2014) Teacher Learning for European Literacy Education (TeL4ELE). Report for Spain. Project Outputs. 80 pp. Available at: http://www.tel4ele.eu.

 


2013

Escobar Urmeneta, C. & Evnitskaya, N. (2013). Affording Students Opportunities for the Integrated Learning of Content and Language. A Contrastive Study on Classroom Interactional Strategies Deployed by Two CLIL Teachers. In Arnau, J. (ed.), Reviving Catalan at School: Challenges and Instructional Approaches, pp. 159-183. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Evnitskaya, N. & Aceros, J.C. (2013). Enfoque y metodología en las aulas biligües. Metodología CLIL [Approach and methodology in bilingual classrooms. CLIL methodology]. Online teaching materials designed for Cenoposiciones (http://cursos.cenhomologados.com/).

Evnitskaya, N. & Escobar Urmeneta, C. (2013). ‘What is harmful?’: La construcción interactiva de las explicaciones en un aula AICLE de ciencias [‘What is harmful?’: The interactive construction of explanations in one CLIL science classroom]. Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Revista de investigación y experiencias didácticas Extra volume 2013: 1160-1164.

García Parejo, I. , R. Whittaker, Mª L. García Bermejo, T. Bordón, I. Blecua, B. Pedrosa (2013) . ¿Cómo construir un andamiaje discursivo eficaz para favorecer el aprendizaje integrado de la lectura y de la escritura en las diferentes disciplinas del currículo? In T. Ramiro-Sánchez, M.T. Ramiro y M.P. Bermúdez (eds) Avances en Ciencias de la Educación y del Desarrollo. Granada: Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual (AEPC)

Llinares, A. (2013). Systemic Functional approaches to second language acquisition in school settings. In García Mayo, P., Gutiérrez-Mangado, J. & Martínez Adrián, M. (eds) Multiple Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Llinares, A. & Pastrana, A. (2013). CLIL students’ pragmatic development across classroom activities and educational levels. Journal of Pragmatics, 59 (A), 81-92.

Morton, T. (2013). Critically evaluating materials for CLIL: Practitioners’ perspectives and practices. In J. Gray (Ed.). Critical Perspectives on Language Teaching Materials. Basingstoke: Palgrave. (pp. 137-60).

Nashaat Sobhy, N., Berzosa, C., & Crean, F. (2013). From ESP to CLIL using the schema theory. Revista de Lenguas para Fines Específicos, 19, 251-267.

Nikula, T., Dalton-Puffer, C. & Llinares, A. (2013). CLIL classroom discourse. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 1:1, 70-100.

 


2012

Evnitskaya, N. (2012). Talking science in a second language: The interactional co-construction of dialogic explanations in the CLIL science classroom. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Llinares, A. & Morton, T. (2012). Social perspectives on interaction and language learning in CLIL classrooms. In Alcón Soler, E. & Safont Jordá. P. (eds.) Alcón Soler, E. & Safont Jordá. P. (eds.) Discourse and learning across L2 instructional contexts. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Llinares, A, Morton, T. & Whittaker, R. (2012). The roles of language in CLIL. Cambridge University Press.

Morton, T. (2012). Classroom talk, conceptual change and teacher reflection in bilingual science teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(1), 101–110.

Pascual, I. (2012). Classroom discourse and teachers’ formative assessment in Content and Language Integrated Learning Classrooms (CLIL) in Madrid. NALDIC Quarterly, 9(2): 17-22.

Somers, T. & Surmont, J. (2012). CLIL and immersion: how clear-cut are they? ELT Journal 66, 1, 113 – 116.

 


2011

Escobar Urmeneta, C. & Evnitskaya, N. (2011). La corrección de ejercicios es una buena ocasión para aprender ciencias e inglés. True or false? Conversaciones de clase exitosas en contextos “AICLE” [Exercise revision is a good occasion to learn science and English. Tru or false? Successful classroom conversations in CLIL contexts]. In M.P. Núñez Delgado & J. Rienda (coords.), La investigación en didáctica de la lengua y la literatura: Situación actual y perspectivas de futuro. Proceedings of the XII SEDLL International Conference, pp. 2047-2060. Granada: Sociedad Española de Didáctica de la Lengua y la Literatura (SEDLL).

Escobar Urmeneta, C., Evnitskaya, N., Moore, E. & Patiño, A. (eds.) (2011). AICLE – CLIL – EMILE. Educació plurilingüe: Experiencias, research & polítiques. Bellaterra: Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Evnitskaya, N. (ed.) (2011). Special issue on CLIL/AICLE. Bellaterra Journal of Teaching & Learning Language & Literature (BJTLLL), 4/2: 1-106.

Evnitskaya, N. & Morton T. (2011). Knowledge construction, meaning-making and interaction in CLIL science classroom communities of practice. Language and Education 25(2): 109-127.

Llinares, A. (2011). Content and Foreign Language Integrated Learning. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe, J.M. Sierra & F. Gallardo del Puerto (eds.) Contributions to Multilingualism in European contexts. Special issue of International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 21/3. 416-420.Whittaker, R., Llinares, A. & McCabe, A. (2011). Written discourse development in CLIL at secondary school. Language Teaching Research 15/3 (343-362).

Llinares, A. & R. Whittaker (2011). Functions of language in CLIL secondary classes: a systemic functional approach. In Escobar, C & L. Nussbaum (eds.) Learning in a Different Language. Barcelona: UAB. 141-161.

Whittaker, R. & A. Llinares García (2011). Integrating the learning of language and the learning of content: the UAM-CLIL Project. In Escobar, C. & L. Nussbaum (eds.) Learning in a Different Language. Barcelona: UAB.

Whittaker, R. & A. Llinares García (2011). Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Secondary School. In House, S. (ed.) Theory and Practice in English Language Teaching. Barcelona: Grao.

 


2010

Dafouz, E., Llinares, A. & T. Morton (2010). CLIL across Contexts: A scaffolding framework for CLIL teacher education. Special Issue “Current Research on CLIL 3″. VIEWS 19/3.

Llinares García, A. & E. Dafouz (2010). Content and Language Integrated Programmes in the Madrid Region: Overview and Research Findings. In Lasagabaster, D. & Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (eds.) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.

Llinares, A. and Morton, T. (2010). Historical explanations as situated practice in Content and Language Integrated Learning. Classroom Discourse 1 (1): 65-84.

Llinares García, A. & R. Whittaker (2010). Writing and speaking in the history class: data from CLIL and first language contexts. In Dalton-Puffer, C., Nikula, T. & U. Smit (eds) Language use in Content-and-language Integrated learning (CLIL). AILA Applied linguistic series. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Morton, T. (2010). Using a genre-based approach to integrating content and language in CLIL: the example of secondary history. In Dalton-Puffer, C., T. Nikula, & U. Smit (Eds) Language use in Content-and-language integrated learning (CLIL). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Pascual, I. (2010). CLIL classrooms: an analysis of teachers’ questions and students’ responses. Proceedings of the XXVIII Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Española de Lingüística Aplicada (AESLA).

Pascual, I. (2010). Teachers’ questions in CLIL contexts. VIEWZ (Vienna English Working Papers), 19(3).

Whittaker, R. (2010). Using SFL in Content and Language Integrated Learning. National Association for Language Development in the Curriculum. Special Issue: Learning language, learning through language and learning about language: the contribution of systemic functional linguistics.

 


2009

Llinares García, A. y R. Whittaker (2009). Teaching and learning history in secondary CLIL classrooms: from speaking to writing. In Dafouz, E, & M. Guerrini (eds.) CLIL across Educational Levels: Experiences from Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Contexts. Richmond-Santillana.

Morton, T. (2009). Integrating language and content in secondary CLIL history: the potential of a genre-based approach. In Carrio-Pastor, M. (Ed.) Content and language integrated learning: leveraging cultural diversity. Bern: Peter Lang.

Whittaker, R. y Llinares, A. (2009). CLIL in social science classrooms: analysis of spoken and written productions. In Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. y R. M. Jiménez Catalán (eds.) Content and Language Integrated Learning. Evidence from Research in Europe. Multilingual Matters.

 


2008

Dafouz, E. y A. Llinares (2008). The Role of Repetition in CLIL Teacher Discourse: A Comparative Study at Secondary and Tertiary Levels. International CLIL Research Journal. Vol 1(1).

Evnitskaya, N. (2008). El contrato didáctico entre estudiantes: análisis del trabajo en parejas en el aula de Aprendizaje Integrado de Contenidos y Lengua (AICLE) [Didactica contract between students: The analysis of group work in CLIL classrooms]. In El valor de la diversidad [meta] lingüística. Proceedings of the VIII Congress on General Linguistics (25-28 June, 2008). Madrid: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. CD-ROM format.

Llinares García, A. & J. Romero Trillo (2008). Discourse markers and the pragmatics of native and non-native teachers in a CLIL corpus. In Romero-Trillo, J. (ed) Pragmatics and Corpus Linguistics. A mutualistic entente. Mouton Series in Pragmatics 2. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

 


2007

Llinares García, A. (2007). Classroom bilingualism at the preschool level: towards a more natural EFL context. In Pérez Vidal, C. et al. (eds) A Portrait of the Young in Multilingual Spain. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Llinares García, A. (2007). Young learners’ functional use of the L2 in a low-immersion EFL context. ELT Journal, 61, 39-45.

Llinares García, A. , Dafouz Milne, E. & R. Whittaker (2007). A linguistic analysis of compositions written by Spanish learners of social sciences in CLIL contexts. In Wolff, D. & D. Marsh (eds.) Diverse contexts converging goals. Content and Language Integrated Learning in Europe. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. 227-236.

Llinares García, A. y J. Romero Trillo (2007). Getting personal: native speaker and EFL pre-school children’s use of the personal function. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 17 (2), 198-213.

Llinares, A. y R. Whittaker (2007). Talking and writing in a foreign language in CLIL contexts: a linguistic analysis of secondary school learners of geography and history. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, Volumen Monográfico. 83-94.

Whittaker, R., O’Donnell, M. & McCabe, A. (2007). Introduction: The changing face of language education. In McCabe, A., O’Donnell, M. & Whittaker, R. (eds) Advances in Language and Education. London: Continuum, pp. 1-12.

 


2006

Llinares García, A. (2006). A pragmatic analysis of children’s interlanguage in EFL preschool contexts. Intercultural Pragmatics, 3-2. 171-193.

Llinares García, A. & J. Romero Trillo (2006). Discourse markers in the EFL classroom. In Carretero, M., Hidalgo Downing, L., Lavid, J., Martínez Caro, E., Neff, J., Pérez de Ayala, S. y Sánchez-Pardo, E. (eds.) A Pleasure of Life in Words: A Festschrift for Angela Downing. Vol. 2, 163-176. Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad Complutense.

Llinares García, A. & R. Whittaker (2006). Oral and written production in social science. Vienna English Working Papers, 15 (vol. 3), 28-32.

McCabe, A. & Whittaker, R. (2006). An introduction to language and literacy. In Whittaker, R., O’Donnell, M. & McCabe, A. (eds) Language & Literacy: Functional Approaches. London: Continuum, pp. 1-11.

 


2005

Dafouz Milne, E. & A. Llinares García (2005). La enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera a través de contenidos: aproximación a los diferentes niveles educativos. Hispanorama, 107, 79-85.

Llinares García, A. (2005). The effect of teacher feedback on EFL learners’ functional production in classroom discourse. Anglogermanica Online.

Llinares García, A. (2005). An Introduction to Pragmatics. Social Action for Language Teachers. Virginia LoCastro. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 2003. Pp. Xi+366. Intercultural Pragmatics, 2-2. 209-216.